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Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition: Author-Date Style: In-Text Citations

Quick guide for Chicago Manual of Style - Author-Date Style

General Note

Exceptions to Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date Style that are exclusive to the Oceanographic Center at NSU are indicated in GREEN.


Also called parenthetical citations, in-text citations are found within the main body of the document immediately after a quote or a paraphrase.  

In-Text Citations

If using EndNote's Cite While You Write feature, please make sure that the formatting provided by EndNote adheres to the following rules:

Basic Rule of Thumb:

(Contributors' Surnames Year of Publication, Page or Section Number When Available)


End of a Sentence (or end of a Figure Caption)

Work with One Author:  (Dodge 1989)

Work with Two Authors: (Sutton and Frank 2013)

Work with more than two Authors:  (Spieler et al. 2005)


Beginning of a Sentence:

Shivji et al. (2010) stated that......


Middle of a Sentence:

After analyzing data from both studies, Gilliam (2008) concluded.....


Quote: Block Quotations:

Reigl (2015) stated that 

The relationship between regeneration and SST/chl-a is negatively exponential and effects are multiplicative/divisive (after taking the anti-log of an originally linear, but logarithmically-scaled model). This helps explain why damage patterns on reefs are frequently observed as a slow progression within a realm of rather low degradation that may not be easily discernible, until a point is reached from which fast degradation results in rapid ecosystem collapse. Interestingly, an exponential increase in number of coral bleaching reports since the 1980s, when warming and anthropogenic nutrification trends began to manifest themselves clearly through damage on coral reefs, mirrors the exponential decrease of regeneration potential (2-3).

Multiple Text References within a Single Parenthetical Citation

According to the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, the order in which references appear in-text depends on the context and is ultimately the decision of the author.  You may decide that the order is based on what is actually being cited, or the relative importance of the items cited.  You may also list alphabetically or chronologically.  If you are publishing in a particular journal, please check the style outlined by the journal to see if they prefer a certain listing for in-text (parenthetical) citations.

Example:  (Fogarty 2016; Lopez 2018; Bernard 2014)

Page Numbers for Journals that Use a Continuous Publishing Model

If a journal, particularly an online journal, opts to use continuous pagination based off of a unique citation ID number and the downloaded PDFs of individual articles are each paginated starting with the number 1, then the proper way to cite individual page numbers within your manuscript would be to cite the citation ID number plus page number (i.e., e106542, p. 1)