Skip to Main Content

APA 7th Edition

Specific Differences between APA 6th Citation and APA 7th


Reference List:

  • Do not include location in the reference.  See APA Publication Manual, sec.9.29 (p. 295).
  • Provide surnames and initials for up to 20 authors (instead of 7) in the reference list. APA Publication Manual, sec.9.8 (p. 286).
  • Include the issue number for all periodicals that have them. See APA Publication Manual, sec.9.25 (p. 294).

Web Addresses and DOIs (reference list):

  • Format DOIs the same way as URLs; the label “DOI:” is no longer necessary. Ex:  See APA Publication Manual, sec.9.34 (p. 298) through sec. 9.36 (p. 300).
  • Do not format URLs preceded by “Retrieved from”, unless a retrieval date is needed. For guidance concerning when a retrieval date is needed, see:  APA Publication Manual, sec. 9.16 (p.290), with examples in Chapter 10, sec. 33 (stable or archived version, p. 324), sec. 47 (online reference work, p.328), sec. 104 (Tweets, p. 349) and sec. 106 (Facebook, p.349).
  • Treat articles coming from an academic database without a DOI as print articles without a DOI. Do not include a retrieval statement or URL. See APA Publication Manual, sec.9.34 (p. 299).
  • Remember, include a link ONLY if
  • You found the work online
  • The item does not have a DOI
  • The link will work for readers

Websites (reference list):

  • Include the website name (unless it is the same as the author). See APA Publication Manual, sec. 9.3 (p.282), sec. 10.16, pp. 350-352).
  • Italicize webpage titles. See APA Publication Manual, sec. 10.16 (p. 351).

Ebooks (reference list):

  • Do not include the format, platform, or device for ebooks in the reference. The publisher is included after the title.  See APA Publication Manual, sec. 10.2.22 (p. 321).

In-Text Citations:

  • For works with three or more authors, use only the first author’s name and “et al.”.  See APA Publication Manual, sec 8.17 (p. 266).