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NSU Policy About Artificial Intelligence

What is the NSU policy about student use of artificial intelligence (AI) in coursework? 

The academic standards section of the NSU student handbook states:          

Students’ use of generative artificial intelligence (e.g., ChatGPT, Google Bard, DALL-E, Midjourney, etc.) or similar resources on any coursework or academic assessments without the prior permission of their faculty member, or the use of these resources in any way that violates the academic standards of NSU and/or a student’s academic program, is expressly prohibited.

What are AI Hallucinations?

Be aware that all AI models, including ChatGPT, can generate hallucinations:

  • A hallucination, confabulation, or delusion is a confident response by an AI model that does not seem to be justified by its training data. It is generated content that doesn't make sense or doesn't align with the source content. 

  • An AI model can “hallucinate” citations that appear to be from legitimate and pink and white robot with blank chat bubblescholarly sources which do not exist. In these instances, when attempting to locate the actual sources through the library, you will find nothing.  
  •  Hallucinations can be caused by errors in encoding and decoding between text and representations, when the AI is trained on a dataset where factual summaries are not directly related to the data being "summarized," and also when training the AI to produce diverse responses. 
  • Hallucinations are an inevitable byproduct of any imperfect generative model and require active AI learning to be avoided.


Citing ChatGPT in APA Style

How to cite ChatGPT in APA Style


  • If you’ve used ChatGPT or other AI tools in your research, explain how you used the tool in your Method section or in a similar section of your paper.
  • For literature reviews, essays, or response/reaction papers, describe how you used the tool in your introduction. Then, in your text, provide the prompt you used and then portions of the relevant text that was generated in response.
  • ChatGPT dialogue is not retrievable by other readers and cannot be cited as personal communications because no one is communicating. Therefore, quote a ChatGPT chat session as algorithm output.
  • Credit the author of the algorithm with a reference list entry and the corresponding in-text citation.

Examples of Citing ChatGPT in APA Style:

  • In-text Citation

When prompted with "Is the left brain right brain divide real or a metaphor?" the ChatGPT-generated text indicated that although the two brain hemispheres are somewhat specialized, "the notation that people can be characterized as 'left-brained' or 'right-brained' is considered to be an oversimplification and a popular myth" (OpenAI, 2023)                                                                                                           

  • Reference

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].



Note: As always, defer to instructor guidelines when writing student papers.

Citing ChatGPT in MLA Style

How to cite ChatGPT in MLA Style:


  • Cite a generative AI tool whenever you paraphrase, quote, or add to your own work content (text, image, data, etc.) that was created by the tool.
  • Explain how you used the tool (for example, editing your prose or translating words) in a note, your text, or another appropriate location.
  • Be sure to check the secondary sources cited by the tool for accuracy.


Examples of Citing ChatGPT in MLA Style:

  • Paraphrased in Your Prose

While the green light in The Great Gatsby might be said to chiefly symbolize four main things: optimism, the unattainability of the American dream, greed, and covetousness ("Describe the symbolism"), arguably the most important--the one that ties all four themes together--is greed. 

  • Quoted in Your Prose

When asked to describe the symbolism of the green light in The Great GatsbyChatGPT provided a summary about optimism, the unattainability of the American dream, greed, and covetousness. However, when further prompted to cite the source on which that summary was based, it noted that it lacked “the ability to conduct research or cite sources independently” but that it could “provide a list of scholarly sources related to the symbolism of the green light in The Great Gatsby” (“In 200 words”).

  • Works-Cited-List Entry

“Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald” prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023,


Note: As always, defer to instructor guidelines when writing student papers.

Citing ChatGPT in Chicago Style

  How to cite ChatGPT in Chicago Manual Style


  • Credit ChatGPT and similar tools whenever you use the text that they generate in your own work by acknowledging the AI tool in your text, for example:

“The following recipe for pizza dough was generated by ChatGPT.”

Examples of citing ChatGPT in Chicago Manual Style:


  • Numbered footnote or endnote

1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023,

  • For Author-date format instead of notes, any information not in the text would be placed in a parenthetical text reference. 

“(ChatGPT, March 7, 2023).” 

  • Bibliography: (note- don’t cite ChatGPT in a bibliography or reference list unless you provide a publicly available link, for example, via a browser extension like ShareGPT or A.I. Archives)

OpenAI. Text generated by ChatGPT, Version GPT-3.5. Accessed May 24, 2023. 


Note: As always, please defer to instructor guidelines when writing student papers.