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BEDI Resources

Definitions and Key Terms

Anti-Semitism - Anti-Semitism is a negative and hostile attitude toward Jews and the Jewish religion. Actions that discriminate, show prejudice, or display a set of beliefs that incorrectly potray Jews are characteristics of anti-Semitism. This form of discrimination against Jews is usually embodied by a combination of religious, racial, cultural, and ethnic biases. As such, anti-Semitism has manifested itself in many ways, ranging from individual expressions of hatred and discrimination against individual Jews to organized violent attacks by hate groups against entire Jewish communities. The most extreme instance of persecution was the Holocaust under Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany.  Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice

Islamophobia - Islamophobia is a prejudice against Islam and Muslims based on negative generalizations or stereotypes that can manifest subtly as aversion or mocking, or overtly as discrimination or attack. Some commentators define Islamophobia in a literal sense as fear of Islam, but Islamophobia may be based on hatred or ignorance rather than on fear, and it may not involve an objection to Islamic doctrine. Due to the limitations of the term, some commentators have proposed Muslimophobia, anti-Muslim prejudice, and anti-Muslim racism as alternatives. The SAGE Encyclopedia of the Sociology of Religion

Religion: a system of thought, feeling, and action that is shared by a group and that gives the members an object of devotion; a code of behavior by which individuals may judge the personal and social consequences of their actions; and a frame of reference by which individuals may relate to their group and their universe. Usually, religion concerns itself with that which transcends the known, the natural, or the expected; it is an acknowledgment of the extraordinary, the mysterious, and the supernatural. The Columbia Encyclopedia

Religious Intolerance: Religious intolerance is “not willing to accept ways of thinking and behaving that are different from your own” (Longman, 1998, p. 355). The most dangerous situation regarding religious intolerance comes when the followers of a specific faith or religious group feel that members of some or all other groups or religions are subhuman. It is then that violence occurs motivated by religious intolerance, leading to a high level of violent attacks, mass crimes, genocide, and more disseminated across the world. Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice

Secular WorldviewSecular worldviews deny the existence of a transcendent, divine, or spiritual dimension of reality and affirm that reality has a different makeup, and it is the basic features of this reality that have importance for how we should understand and live our lives. Worldview studies | Religious Studies | Cambridge Core

Religious Identity & Secular Worldview